Spring Cloud Function

Use Spring Cloud Function framework with LocalStack

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Overview

In this guide, you will learn how to use LocalStack to test your serverless applications powered by Spring Cloud Function framework.

Complexity★★★☆☆
Time to read30 minutes
Editioncommunity [pro]
Platformx64_86 (-aarch64)

Covered Topics

We will create a new Rest API application that will route requests to a Cloud Function using functionRouter and routing expressions.

The primary language for the application is Kotlin powered by Gradle build tool, but the described concepts would work for any other JVM setup.

Limitations

This document demonstrates the usage of the Spring Cloud Function framework together with LocalStack. It does not cover some of the application-specific topics, like 404 error handling, or parametrized routing, that you need to consider when building production-ready applications.

Setting up an Application

We recommend using jenv to manage multiple Java runtimes.

Starting a new Project

Please follow the instructions from the official website to install the Gradle build tool on your machine.

Then run the following command to initialize a new Gradle project

$ gradle init

After initialization, you will find the Gradle wrapper script gradlew. From now on, we will use the wrapper instead of the globally installed Gradle binary:

$ ./gradlew <command>

Project Settings

Let’s give our project a name: open settings.gradle, and adjust the autogenerated name to something meaningful.

rootProject.name = 'localstack-sampleproject'

Now we need to define our dependencies. Here’s a list of what we will be using in our project.

Gradle plugins:

Dependencies:

In order to deploy our application to AWS, we need to build so-called “fat jar” which contains all application dependencies. To that end, we use the “Shadow Jar” plugin.

Here’s our final build.gradle:

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plugins {
  id "java"
  id "org.jetbrains.kotlin.jvm" version '1.5.31'
  id "org.jetbrains.kotlin.plugin.spring" version '1.5.31'
  id 'org.springframework.boot' version '2.5.5'
  id "io.spring.dependency-management" version '1.0.11.RELEASE'
  id "com.github.johnrengelman.shadow" version '7.0.0'
}

group = 'org.localstack.sampleproject'
sourceCompatibility = 11

tasks.withType(JavaCompile) {
  options.encoding = 'UTF-8'
}

repositories {
  mavenCentral()
  maven { url "https://plugins.gradle.org/m2/" }
}

ext {
  springCloudVersion = "3.1.4"
  awsLambdaLog4jVersion = "1.2.0"
  awsLambdaJavaEventsVersion = "3.10.0"
  jacksonVersion = "2.12.5"
}

dependencies {
  implementation "org.jetbrains.kotlin:kotlin-stdlib"

  implementation "org.springframework.cloud:spring-cloud-starter-function-web:$springCloudVersion"
  implementation "org.springframework.cloud:spring-cloud-function-adapter-aws:$springCloudVersion"

  implementation "com.amazonaws:aws-lambda-java-log4j2:$awsLambdaLog4jVersion"
  implementation "com.amazonaws:aws-lambda-java-events:$awsLambdaJavaEventsVersion"

  implementation "com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-core:$jacksonVersion"
  implementation "com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-databind:$jacksonVersion"
  implementation "com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-annotations:$jacksonVersion"
  implementation "com.fasterxml.jackson.module:jackson-module-kotlin:$jacksonVersion"
}

import com.github.jengelman.gradle.plugins.shadow.transformers.*

// Configure the main class
jar {
  manifest {
      attributes 'Start-Class': 'org.localstack.sampleproject.Application'
  }
}

// Build a fatjar (with dependencies) for aws lambda
shadowJar {
  transform(Log4j2PluginsCacheFileTransformer)

  dependencies {
      exclude(
          dependency("org.springframework.cloud:spring-cloud-function-web:${springCloudVersion}")
      )
  }

  // Required for Spring
  mergeServiceFiles()

  append 'META-INF/spring.handlers'
  append 'META-INF/spring.schemas'
  append 'META-INF/spring.tooling'

  transform(PropertiesFileTransformer) {
      paths = ['META-INF/spring.factories']
      mergeStrategy = "append"
  }
}

assemble.dependsOn shadowJar

Please note that we will be using org.localstack.sampleproject as a working namespace, and org.localstack.sampleproject.Application as an entry class for our application. You can adjust it for your needs, but don’t forget to change your package names accordingly.

Configure Log4J2 for AWS Lambda

Spring framework comes with Log4J logger, so all we need to do is to configure it for AWS Lambda. In this project, we are following official documentation to setup up src/main/resources/log4j2.xml content.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Configuration packages="com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.log4j2.LambdaAppender">
    <Appenders>
        <Lambda name="Lambda">
            <PatternLayout>
                <pattern>%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} %X{AWSRequestId} %-5p %c{1}:%L - %m%n</pattern>
            </PatternLayout>
        </Lambda>
    </Appenders>
    <Loggers>
        <Root level="debug">
            <AppenderRef ref="Lambda" />
        </Root>
    </Loggers>
</Configuration>

Configure Spring Cloud Function for Rest API

Spring Function comes with functionRouter that can route requests to different Beans based on predefined routing expressions. Let’s configure it to lookup our function Beans by HTTP method and path, create a new application.properties file under src/main/resources/application.properties with the following content:

spring.main.banner-mode=off
spring.cloud.function.definition=functionRouter
spring.cloud.function.routing-expression=headers['httpMethod'].concat(' ').concat(headers['path'])
spring.cloud.function.scan.packages=org.localstack.sampleproject.api

Once configured, you can use FunctionInvoker as a handler for your Rest API lambda function. It will automatically pick up the configuration we have just set.

org.springframework.cloud.function.adapter.aws.FunctionInvoker::handleRequest

Define an Application class

Now our application needs an entry-class, the one we referenced earlier. Let’s add it under src/main/kotlin/org/localstack/sampleproject/Application.kt.

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package org.localstack.sampleproject

import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication

@SpringBootApplication
class Application

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
    // Do nothing unless you use a custom runtime
}

Configure Jackson

In our sample project we are using a JSON format for reqeusts and responses. The easiest way to get started with JSON is to use the Jackson library. Let’s configure it by creating a new configuration class JacksonConfiguration.kt under src/main/kotlin/org/localstack/sampleproject/config:

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.config

import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonInclude
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.*
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Primary
import org.springframework.http.converter.json.Jackson2ObjectMapperBuilder
import java.text.DateFormat

@Configuration
class JacksonConfiguration {

    @Bean
    fun jacksonBuilder() = Jackson2ObjectMapperBuilder()
        .dateFormat(DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.FULL))

    @Bean
    @Primary
    fun objectMapper(): ObjectMapper = ObjectMapper().apply {
        configure(DeserializationFeature.FAIL_ON_UNKNOWN_PROPERTIES, false)
        configure(SerializationFeature.FAIL_ON_EMPTY_BEANS, false)
        configure(SerializationFeature.WRITE_ENUMS_USING_TO_STRING, true)
        configure(SerializationFeature.WRITE_DATES_AS_TIMESTAMPS, false)
        configure(SerializationFeature.ORDER_MAP_ENTRIES_BY_KEYS, true)
        configure(MapperFeature.SORT_PROPERTIES_ALPHABETICALLY, true)
        setSerializationInclusion(JsonInclude.Include.NON_NULL)
        findAndRegisterModules()
    }
}

In applications where you need support for multiple formats or a format different from JSON (for example, SOAP/XML applications) simply use multiple beans with corresponding ObjectMapper implementations.

Define Logging Utility

Let’s create a small logging utility to simplify interactions with the logger

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.util

import org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager
import org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger

open class Logger {
    val LOGGER: Logger = LogManager.getLogger(javaClass.enclosingClass)
}

Add Request/Response utilities

To reduce the amount of boilerplate code, we are going to introduce three utility functions for our Rest API communications:

  • to build regular json response
  • to build error json response
  • to parse request payload using ObjectMapper. Note that ObjectMapper does not necessarily need to be a JSON only. It could also be XML or any other Mapper extended from standard ObjectMapper. Your application may even support multiple protocols with different request/response formats at once.

Let’s define utility functions to to build API gateway responses:

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.util

import org.springframework.messaging.Message
import org.springframework.messaging.support.MessageBuilder

data class ResponseError(
    val message: String,
)

fun <T>buildJsonResponse(data: T, code: Int = 200): Message<T> {
    return MessageBuilder
        .withPayload(data)
        .setHeader("Content-Type", "application/json")
        .setHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*")
        .setHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", "OPTIONS,POST,GET")
        .setHeader("statusCode", code)
        .build()
}

fun buildJsonErrorResponse(message: String, code: Int = 500) =
    buildJsonResponse(ResponseError(message), code)

And now a utility function to process API Gateway requests:

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.util

import com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.APIGatewayProxyRequestEvent
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper
import org.springframework.messaging.Message
import java.util.function.Function

fun <T>apiGatewayFunction(
    objectMapper: ObjectMapper,
    callable: (message: Message<T>, context: APIGatewayProxyRequestEvent) -> Message<*>
): Function<Message<T>, Message<*>> = Function { input ->
    try {
        val context = objectMapper.readValue(
            objectMapper.writeValueAsString(input.headers),
            APIGatewayProxyRequestEvent::class.java
        )

        return@Function callable(input, context)
    } catch (e: Throwable) {
        val message = e.message?.replace("\n", "")?.replace("\"", "'")
        return@Function buildJsonErrorResponse(message ?: "", 500)
    }
}

Creating a sample Model / DTO

To transfer data from requests into something more meaningful than JSON strings (and back) you will be using a lot of Models and Data Transfer Objects (DTOs). It’s time to define our first one.

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.model

import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonIgnore

data class SampleModel(
    val id: Int,
    val name: String,

    @JsonIgnore
    val jsonIgnoredProperty: String? = null,
)

Creating Rest API endpoints

Let’s add our first endpoints to simulate CRUD operations on previously defined SampleModel:

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.api

import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper
import org.localstack.sampleproject.model.SampleModel
import org.localstack.sampleproject.util.Logger
import org.localstack.sampleproject.util.apiGatewayFunction
import org.localstack.sampleproject.util.buildJsonResponse
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component


private val SAMPLE_RESPONSE = mutableListOf(
    SampleModel(id = 1, name = "Sample #1"),
    SampleModel(id = 2, name = "Sample #2"),
)


@Component
class SampleApi(private val objectMapper: ObjectMapper) {

    companion object : Logger()

    @Bean("POST /v1/entities")
    fun createSampleEntity() = apiGatewayFunction<SampleModel>(objectMapper) { input, context ->
        LOGGER.info("calling POST /v1/entities")
        SAMPLE_RESPONSE.add(input.payload)
        buildJsonResponse(input.payload, code = 201)
    }

    @Bean("GET /v1/entities")
    fun listSampleEntities() = apiGatewayFunction<ByteArray>(objectMapper) { input, context ->
        LOGGER.info("calling GET /v1/entities")
        buildJsonResponse("hello world")
    }

    @Bean("GET /v1/entities/get")
    fun getSampleEntity() = apiGatewayFunction<ByteArray>(objectMapper) { input, context ->
        LOGGER.info("calling GET /v1/entities/get")
        val desiredId = context.queryStringParameters["id"]!!.toInt()
        buildJsonResponse(SAMPLE_RESPONSE.find { it.id == desiredId })
    }
}

Note how we used Spring’s dependency injection to inject ObjectMapper Bean we configured earlier.

Cold Start and Warmup (PRO)

We know Java’s cold start is always a pain. To minimize this pain, we will try to define a pre-warming endpoint within the Rest API. By invoking this function every 5-10 mins we can make sure Rest API lambda is always kept in a pre-warmed state.

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.api

import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper
import org.localstack.sampleproject.util.apiGatewayFunction
import org.localstack.sampleproject.util.buildJsonResponse
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component


@Component
class ScheduleApi(private val objectMapper: ObjectMapper) {

    @Bean("SCHEDULE warmup")
    fun warmup() = apiGatewayFunction<ByteArray>(objectMapper) { input, context ->
        // execute scheduled events
        buildJsonResponse("OK")
    }
}

Now you can add a scheduled event to the Rest API lambda function with the following synthetic payload (to simulate API gateway request). This way, you can define any other scheduled events, but we recommend using pure lambda functions.

{
    "httpMethod": "SCHEDULE",
    "path": "warmup"
}

As you may have guessed, this input will get mapped to the SCHEDULE warmup Bean.

For more information, please read the “Setting up Deployment” section.

Creating other lambda Handlers

HTTP requests are not the only thing our Spring Function-powered lambdas can do. We can still define pure lambda functions, DynamoDB stream handlers, and so on.

Below you can find a little example of few lambda functions grouped in LambdaApi class.

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package org.localstack.sampleproject.api

import com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.DynamodbEvent
import org.localstack.sampleproject.model.SampleModel
import org.localstack.sampleproject.util.Logger
import org.springframework.cloud.function.adapter.aws.SpringBootStreamHandler
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component
import java.util.function.Function

@Component
class LambdaApi : SpringBootStreamHandler() {

    companion object : Logger()

    @Bean
    fun functionOne(): Function<Any, String> {
        return Function {
            LOGGER.info("calling function one")
            return@Function "ONE";
        }
    }

    @Bean
    fun functionTwo(): Function<SampleModel, SampleModel> {
        return Function {
            LOGGER.info("calling function two")
            return@Function it;
        }
    }

    @Bean
    fun dynamoDbStreamHandlerExample(): Function<DynamodbEvent, Unit> {
        return Function {
            LOGGER.info("handling DynamoDB stream event")
        }
    }
}

As you can see from the example above, we are using SpringBootStreamHandler class as a base that takes care of the application bootstrapping process and AWS requests transformation.

Now org.localstack.sampleproject.api.LambdaApi can be used as a handler for your lambda function along with FUNCTION_NAME environmental variable with the function bean name.

You may have noticed we used DynamodbEvent in the last example. The Lambda-Events package comes with a set of predefined wrappers that you can use to handle different lifecycle events from AWS.

Setting up Deployment

Check our sample project for usage examples.

service: localstack-sampleproject-serverless

provider:
  name: aws
  runtime: java11
  stage: ${opt:stage}
  region: us-west-1
  lambdaHashingVersion: 20201221
  deploymentBucket:
    name: deployment-bucket

package:
  artifact: build/libs/localstack-sampleproject-all.jar

plugins:
  - serverless-localstack
  - serverless-deployment-bucket

custom:
  localstack:
    stages:
      - local

functions:
  http_proxy:
    timeout: 30
    handler: org.springframework.cloud.function.adapter.aws.FunctionInvoker::handleRequest
    events:
      - http:
          path: /{proxy+}
          method: ANY
          cors: true
      # Please, note that events are a LocalStack PRO feature
      - schedule:
          rate: rate(10 minutes)
          enabled: true
          input:
            httpMethod: SCHEDULE
            path: warmup
  lambda_helloOne:
    timeout: 30
    handler: org.localstack.sampleproject.api.LambdaApi
    environment:
      FUNCTION_NAME: functionOne
  lambda_helloTwo:
    timeout: 30
    handler: org.localstack.sampleproject.api.LambdaApi
    environment:
      FUNCTION_NAME: functionTwo
package org.localstack.cdkstack

import java.util.UUID
import software.amazon.awscdk.core.Construct
import software.amazon.awscdk.core.Duration
import software.amazon.awscdk.core.Stack
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.apigateway.CorsOptions
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.apigateway.LambdaRestApi
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.apigateway.StageOptions
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.events.Rule
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.events.RuleTargetInput
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.events.Schedule
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.events.targets.LambdaFunction
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.lambda.*
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.lambda.Function
import software.amazon.awscdk.services.s3.Bucket

private val STAGE = System.getenv("STAGE") ?: "local"
private const val JAR_PATH = "../../build/libs/localstack-sampleproject-all.jar"

class ApplicationStack(parent: Construct, name: String) : Stack(parent, name) {

    init {
        val restApiLambda = Function.Builder.create(this, "RestApiFunction")
            .code(Code.fromAsset(JAR_PATH))
            .handler("org.springframework.cloud.function.adapter.aws.FunctionInvoker")
            .timeout(Duration.seconds(30))
            .runtime(Runtime.JAVA_11)
            .tracing(Tracing.ACTIVE)
            .build()

        val corsOptions = CorsOptions.builder().allowOrigins(listOf("*")).allowMethods(listOf("*")).build()

        LambdaRestApi.Builder.create(this, "ExampleRestApi")
            .proxy(true)
            .restApiName("ExampleRestApi")
            .defaultCorsPreflightOptions(corsOptions)
            .deployOptions(StageOptions.Builder().stageName(STAGE).build())
            .handler(restApiLambda)
            .build()

        val warmupRule = Rule.Builder.create(this, "WarmupRule")
            .schedule(Schedule.rate(Duration.minutes(10)))
            .build()

        val warmupTarget = LambdaFunction.Builder.create(restApiLambda)
            .event(RuleTargetInput.fromObject(mapOf("httpMethod" to "SCHEDULE", "path" to "warmup")))
            .build()

        // Please note that events is a LocalStack PRO feature
        warmupRule.addTarget(warmupTarget)

        SingletonFunction.Builder.create(this, "ExampleFunctionOne")
            .code(Code.fromAsset(JAR_PATH))
            .handler("org.localstack.sampleproject.api.LambdaApi")
            .environment(mapOf("FUNCTION_NAME" to "functionOne"))
            .timeout(Duration.seconds(30))
            .runtime(Runtime.JAVA_11)
            .uuid(UUID.randomUUID().toString())
            .build()

        SingletonFunction.Builder.create(this, "ExampleFunctionTwo")
            .code(Code.fromAsset(JAR_PATH))
            .handler("org.localstack.sampleproject.api.LambdaApi")
            .environment(mapOf("FUNCTION_NAME" to "functionTwo"))
            .timeout(Duration.seconds(30))
            .runtime(Runtime.JAVA_11)
            .uuid(UUID.randomUUID().toString())
            .build()
    }
}
variable "STAGE" {
    type    = string
    default = "local"
}

variable "AWS_REGION" {
    type    = string
    default = "us-east-1"
}

variable "JAR_PATH" {
    type    = string
    default = "build/libs/localstack-sampleproject-all.jar"
}

provider "aws" {
    access_key                  = "test_access_key"
    secret_key                  = "test_secret_key"
    region                      = var.AWS_REGION
    s3_force_path_style         = true
    skip_credentials_validation = true
    skip_metadata_api_check     = true
    skip_requesting_account_id  = true

    endpoints {
        apigateway       = var.STAGE == "local" ? "http://localhost:4566" : null
        cloudformation   = var.STAGE == "local" ? "http://localhost:4566" : null
        cloudwatch       = var.STAGE == "local" ? "http://localhost:4566" : null
        cloudwatchevents = var.STAGE == "local" ? "http://localhost:4566" : null
        iam              = var.STAGE == "local" ? "http://localhost:4566" : null
        lambda           = var.STAGE == "local" ? "http://localhost:4566" : null
        s3               = var.STAGE == "local" ? "http://localhost:4566" : null
    }
}

resource "aws_iam_role" "lambda-execution-role" {
    name = "lambda-execution-role"

    assume_role_policy = <<EOF
{
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Action": "sts:AssumeRole",
      "Principal": {
        "Service": "lambda.amazonaws.com"
      },
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Sid": ""
    }
  ]
}
EOF
}

resource "aws_lambda_function" "restApiLambdaFunction" {
    filename      = var.JAR_PATH
    function_name = "RestApiFunction"
    role          = aws_iam_role.lambda-execution-role.arn
    handler       = "org.springframework.cloud.function.adapter.aws.FunctionInvoker"
    runtime       = "java11"
    timeout       = 30
    source_code_hash = filebase64sha256(var.JAR_PATH)
}

resource "aws_api_gateway_rest_api" "rest-api" {
    name = "ExampleRestApi"
}

resource "aws_api_gateway_resource" "proxy" {
    rest_api_id = aws_api_gateway_rest_api.rest-api.id
    parent_id   = aws_api_gateway_rest_api.rest-api.root_resource_id
    path_part   = "{proxy+}"
}

resource "aws_api_gateway_method" "proxy" {
    rest_api_id   = aws_api_gateway_rest_api.rest-api.id
    resource_id   = aws_api_gateway_resource.proxy.id
    http_method   = "ANY"
    authorization = "NONE"
}

resource "aws_api_gateway_integration" "proxy" {
    rest_api_id = aws_api_gateway_rest_api.rest-api.id
    resource_id = aws_api_gateway_method.proxy.resource_id
    http_method = aws_api_gateway_method.proxy.http_method

    integration_http_method = "POST"
    type                    = "AWS_PROXY"
    uri                     = aws_lambda_function.restApiLambdaFunction.invoke_arn
}

resource "aws_api_gateway_deployment" "rest-api-deployment" {
    depends_on = [aws_api_gateway_integration.proxy]
    rest_api_id = aws_api_gateway_rest_api.rest-api.id
    stage_name  = var.STAGE
}

resource "aws_cloudwatch_event_rule" "warmup" {
    name = "warmup-event-rule"
    schedule_expression = "rate(10 minutes)"
}

resource "aws_cloudwatch_event_target" "warmup" {
    target_id = "warmup"
    rule = aws_cloudwatch_event_rule.warmup.name
    arn = aws_lambda_function.restApiLambdaFunction.arn
    input = "{\"httpMethod\": \"SCHEDULE\", \"path\": \"warmup\"}"
}

resource "aws_lambda_permission" "warmup-permission" {
    statement_id = "AllowExecutionFromCloudWatch"
    action = "lambda:InvokeFunction"
    function_name = aws_lambda_function.restApiLambdaFunction.function_name
    principal = "events.amazonaws.com"
    source_arn = aws_cloudwatch_event_rule.warmup.arn
}

resource "aws_lambda_function" "exampleFunctionOne" {
    filename      = var.JAR_PATH
    function_name = "ExampleFunctionOne"
    role          = aws_iam_role.lambda-execution-role.arn
    handler       = "org.localstack.sampleproject.api.LambdaApi"
    runtime       = "java11"
    timeout       = 30
    source_code_hash = filebase64sha256(var.JAR_PATH)
    environment {
        variables = {
            FUNCTION_NAME = "functionOne"
        }
    }
}

resource "aws_lambda_function" "exampleFunctionTwo" {
    filename      = var.JAR_PATH
    function_name = "ExampleFunctionTwo"
    role          = aws_iam_role.lambda-execution-role.arn
    handler       = "org.localstack.sampleproject.api.LambdaApi"
    runtime       = "java11"
    timeout       = 30
    source_code_hash = filebase64sha256(var.JAR_PATH)
    environment {
        variables = {
            FUNCTION_NAME = "functionTwo"
        }
    }
}

Testing, Debugging and Code hot-swapping

Please read our Lambda Tools documentation to learn more about testing, debugging and code hot-swapping for JVM Lambda functions.